Some spreadsheet templates will require you to use formulas or functions to perform calculations.

**Formulas**

Formulas are equations that add, subtract, multiply, or divide numbers that are entered in the cells. Formulas always begin with an **equals sign (=)**, contain **values or cell addresses**, and use one or more of the following **mathematical symbols**:

**+**to add**-**to subtract*****to multiply**/**to divide

In most cases, you should use cell addresses in your formulas. However, you can use values in your formulas as well.

For example, to subtract the contents of cell B8 from A8 using cell addresses, you would type your formula as **=A8-B8**.

To use values in your formula instead of cell addresses, you would type **=55219-18363**.

Once you press Enter on your keyboard or click outside of the cell, the calculation will be performed and you’ll see the result inside the cell.

**Functions**

Functions** **also start with an equals sign (=) and include a series of values or cell addresses. But unlike formulas, functions also contain a **name** and **parentheses** around the values or cell addresses. The function name (e.g., “FV” or “NPV”) describes what the function is calculating (e.g., future value or net present value).

For example, by typing **=FV(B2, B3, B4, B5)** into a cell, you would be calculating the future value of the contents of cells B2, B3, B4, and B5.

Whether you use values or cell addresses in functions, remember that they must be **separated by commas**.

Once you’ve added all the cell addresses or values to your function, press Enter on your keyboard or click outside of the cell to perform the calculation.

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